Thermodynamics

Laws of Thermodynamics


Thermodynamics is about the energy and work of a system, a group of parts acting together to achieve a goal, and was invented
in the 19th century. Thermodynamics has four laws, laws: one, two, and three were created before the fourth law, which is called the zeroth law.

First Law: The first law is based upon the law of conservation of energy, energy can neither be created or destroyed, only changed. This law applies to systems, because the heat supplied into the system equals the work outputted. Sadly though it is impossible to create a perfect efficiency machine, because some of the energy will escape as other forms that are unusable.

Second Law: The second law explains one word, entropy. Entropy can be defined as the amount of unusable energy a system exerts, and can only stay the same or increase. When entropy increases in a system, the amount of randomness in a system increases. This also relates to the end of the universe. Scientists believe that when the universe was created in big bang there was no entropy, as usable energy became unusable entropy increase. According to the second law eventually the universe will end, most likely by expansion. The question then for scientists, is who or what started the universe.

Third Law: The Third Law states that all of these processes stop at absolute zero, because motion stops. The problem is that deep space is above absolute zero.

Zeroth Law: The Zeroth Law is a more fundamental law, and states that if two separate systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third, the first two systems are in equilibrium.

C. P. Snow: C. P. Snow who was a British writer and scientist came up with an easy way to remember the first three laws of thermodynamics. In his game "you cannot win", because according to the law of conservation of energy and matter, matter and energy is always conserved so you cannot get something out of nothing. Also "you cannot break even", because the amount of useless energy or entropy always increases. Finally "you cannot get out of the game", because absolute zero, which is the only way to stop all this is not possible to get.
Newton's Laws of Motion and Thermodynamics

Newton's laws of motion also work in the systems that thermodynamics apply to. For example in some systems heat is added to move a piston, so the piston can do work.

First Law: Newton's first law of motion which states that an object at rest will stay at rest and an object moving in a straight line will continue to do these actions unless an unbalanced force acts upon the object. When the piston is at rest it will not move do to the first law of motion, the first law of thermodynamics says that the amount of heat added to a system is the amount of work outputted. When heat is added to the system the piston will try to resist the push of the steam. Once the heat overcomes the piston's resistance the piston will be put in motion, and then it will have a tendency to stay in motion.

Second Law: Newton's second law of motion applies to the energy released from a system. Some of the energy finds its way out of the system. This energy then follows Newton's second law of motion by accelerating away from the system. This energy also follows the second law of thermodynamics, because this energy is not useful anymore, and it increases the entropy of the system.

Third Law: Newton's third law of motion applies to a system, because when the heat pushes against the piston air resistance is pushing against the piston on the other side, and friction is slowing down the piston when it moves against the surface of the machine. Eventually the force of the heat will overcome the opposite force or resistance, but the resistance will eventually get stronger, limiting the maximum speed the piston can go. This also applies to the first law of thermodynamics, because the heat added to the system is equal to the amount of work outputted. So when the heat pushes on the piston, the equal and opposite is the gas the piston is pushing on, so the heat is doing work on the piston to make it push on the gas.





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